Friday, September 4, 2015

Did I read that Right? (go all the way to the bottom for this one) and Shabbat Shalom


Learn From Role Models

When your first reaction is not to take the action that you really want to do, ask yourself, "Who do I know has a positive attitude about taking action? Now let me borrow his mind, as it were. Let me borrow his brain in my own unique way." Make yourself feel the way you imagine he feels about the situation and task at hand.

On a screen in your mind, see this person taking action with energy. Now on the same screen, see yourself taking action in a similar way. Run through that picture over and over again.

This is why movie actors and actresses have such a powerful effect on us.  We feel as if we had their live even though we only had it  on the screen.

That being said he is an actor that makes a stand for Israel.

With Rosh Hashana coming up in just 8 days, we have to do our best and look at our actions and see where we want the next year to take us.

Love Yehuda Lave














New MRSA CC398 animal virus now makes pig meat, not only not kosher, but dangerous to eat. Watch this report on England:

 http://www.jewsnews.co.il/2015/08/09/not-kosher-pig-mrsa-superbug-spreading-to-humans-through-pork/


Before we learn about Larry Page, here is an update on the Seven Dwarfs:

 

FOX News reported today that Walt Disney's new film called "Jet Black," the African-American version of "Snow White" has been cancelled.   All of the 7 dwarfs: Dealer, Stealer, Mugger, Forger, Drive-By, Homeboy, and Sniper have refused to sing "Hi Ho" because they say it offends black prostitutes. They also say they damn sure have no intention of singing, "It's off to work we go."

 



 
20 Things I've Learned From Larry Page
 

20 Things I've Learned From Larry Page

Aug 11, 2015

I visited Google a few weeks ago and, after almost getting arrested, my mind was blown.

First, Claudia wandered into the garage where they were actually making or fixing the driverless cars. When they finally realized she was wandering around, security had to escort her out.

We got scared and we thought we were going to get in trouble or thrown out.

Then we met with a friend high up at Google and learned some of the things Google was working on.

Nothing was related to search. Everything was related to curing cancer (a bracelet that can make all the cancer cells in your body move towards the bracelet), automating everything (cars just one of those things), Wi-Fi everywhere (Project Loon) and solving other "billion person problems".

A problem wasn't considered worthy unless it could solve a problem for a billion people.

So now Alphabet is aligning itself towards this strategy: a holding company that owns and invests in other companies that can solve billion person problems.

It's not divided up by money. It's divided up by mission.

I want to do this in my personal life also.

Just analyzing Larry Page's quotes from the past ten years is a guidebook for "billion person success" and for personal success.

---

Here are some of his quotes (in bold):

"If you're changing the world, you're working on important things. You're excited to get up in the morning."

To have well-being in life you need three things: A) a feeling of competence or growth. B) good emotional relationships. C) freedom of choice.

Being able to wake up excited in the morning is an outcome of well-being.

Feeling like every day you are working on a billion-person problem will give you those three aspects of well-being.

At the very least, when I wake up I try to remember to ask: Who can I help today?

Because I'm a superhero and this is my secret identity.

---

"Especially in technology, we need revolutionary change, not incremental change."

Too often we get stuck in "good enough". If you build a business that supports your family and maybe provides for retirement then that is "good enough".

If you write a book that sells 1000 copies then that is "good enough."

You ever wonder why planes have gotten slower since 1965? The Dreamliner 787 is actually slower than the 747.

That's ok. It's good enough to get people across the world and save on fuel costs.

It's only the people who push past the "good enough syndrome" that we hear about: Elon Musk building a space ship. Larry Page indexing all knowledge. Elizabeth Holmes potentially diagnosing all diseases with a pin prick.

Isaac Asimov wrote classic science fiction like "The Foundation Series" but it wasn't good enough for him. He ended up writing 500 more books, writing more books than anyone in history.

Larry Page keeps pushing so that every day he wakes up knowing he's going to go past "good enough" that day.

What does your "good enough" day look like. What's one thing that moves you past that?

---

"My job as a leader is to make sure everybody in the company has great opportunities, and that they feel they're having a meaningful impact and are contributing to the good of society."

Whenever I've managed companies and have had the small opportunity to be a leader I've judged my success on only one thing:

Does the employee at night go home and call his or her parents and say, "guess what I did today!"

I'm not sure this always worked. But I do think Larry Page lifts all his employees to try to be better versions of themselves, to try to surpass him, to try and change the world.

If each employee can say, "who did I help today" and have an answer, then that is a good leader.

Empowering others, empowers you.

---

"Lots of companies don't succeed over time. What do they fundamentally do wrong? They usually miss the future."

The stock market is near all time highs. And yet every company in the original Dow Jones market index (except for GE) has gone out of business.

Even US Steel, which built every building in the country for an entire century, has gone bankrupt.

Never let the practical get in the way of the possible.

It's practical to focus on what you can do right now.

But give yourself time in your life to wonder what is possible and to make even the slightest moves in that direction.

We're at maybe 1% of what is possible. Despite the faster change, we're still moving slow relative to the opportunities we have. I think a lot of that is because of the negativity... Every story I read is Google vs someone else. That's boring. We should be focusing on building the things that don't exist.

Sometimes I want to give up on whatever I'm working on. I'm not working on major billion person problems.

And sometimes I think I write too much about the same thing. Every day I try to think, "What new thing can I write today" and I actually get depressed when I can't think of something totally new.

But I am working on things that I think can help people. And if you are out side of people's comfort zones, if you are breaking the normal rules of society, people will try to pull you down.

Larry Page didn't want to be defined by Google for his entire life. He wants to be defined by what he hasn't yet done. What he might even be afraid to do.

I wonder what my life would be like if I started doing all the things I was afraid to do. If I started defining my life by all the things I have yet to do.

---

"Many leaders of big organizations, I think, don't believe that change is possible. But if you look at history, things do change, and if your business is static, you're likely to have issues."

Guess which company had the original patent that ultimately Larry Page derived his own patent (that created google) from?

Go ahead. Think a second. Guess.

An employee of this company created the patent and tried to get them to use it to catalog information on the web.

They refused.

So Robin Li, an employee of The Wall Street Journal, quit the newspaper of capitalism (who owned his patent), moved to China (a communist country), and created Baidu.

And Larry Page modified the patent, filed his own, and created Google.

And the Wall Street Journal got swallowed up by Rupert Murdoch and is dying a slow death.

---

"I think as technologists we should have some safe places where we can try out new things and figure out the effect on society."

A friend of mine is writing a novel but is afraid to publish it. "Maybe it will be bad," he told me.

Fortunately we live in a world where experimentation is easy. You can make a 30 page novel, publish it on Amazon for nothing, use an assumed name, and test to see if people like it.

Heck, I've done it. And it was fun.

Mac Lethal is a rapper who has gotten over 200 million views on his YouTube videos. Even Ellen had him on her show to demonstrate his skills.

I asked him, "do you get nervous if one of your videos gets less views than others?"

He told me valuable advice: "Nobody remembers your bad stuff. They only remember your good stuff."

I live by that.

---

"If we were motivated by money, we would have sold the company a long time ago and ended up on a beach."

Larry Page and Sergey Brin wanted to be academics. When they first patented Google, they tried to sell to Yahoo for $1 million (ONE MILLION DOLLARS).

When Yahoo laughed them out the door, they tried to sell to Excite for $750,000.

Excite laughed them out the door. Now an ex-employee of Google is the CEO of Yahoo. And the founder of Excite works at Google. Google dominates.

Money is a side effect of trying to help others. Trying to solve problems. Trying to move beyond the "good enough".

So many people ask: "how do I get traffic?" That's the wrong question.

If you ask every day, "How did I help people today?" then you will have more traffic and money than you could have imagined.

---

"Invention is not enough. Tesla invented the electric power we use, but he struggled to get it out to people. You have to combine both things: invention and innovation focus, plus the company that can commercialize things and get them to people."

Everyone quotes the iconic story of Thomas Edison "failing" 10,000 times to get the electric lightbulb working.

I put failing in quotes because he was doing what any scientist does. He does many experiments until one works.

But what he did that was truly remarkable was convince New York City a few weeks later to light up their downtown using his lights.

The first time ever a city was lit up at night with electricity.

That's innovation. That's how the entire world got lit up.

---

"If you say you want to automate cars and save people's lives, the skills you need for that aren't taught in any particular discipline. I know - I was interested in working on automating cars when I was a Ph.D. student in 1995."

Too often we get labeled by our degree and our job titles. Larry Page and Elon Musk were computer science majors. Now they build cars and space ships.

David Chang was a competitive golfer as a kid, majored in religious studies in college, and then had random gopher jobs in his 20s.

The gopher jobs all happened to be in restaurants so he became familiar with how the business was run.

Then he started probably the most popular restaurant in NYC, momofoku. A dozen or so restaurants later, he is one of the most successful restauranteurs in history.

Peter Thiel worked as a lawyer in one of the top law firms in NY. When he quit in order to become an entrepreneur, he told me that many of his colleagues came up to him and said, "I can't believe you are escaping".

Escaping the labels and titles and hopes that everyone else has for us is one of the first steps in Choosing Ourselves for the success we are meant to have.

We define our lives from our imagination and the things we create with our hands.

---

"It really matters whether people are working on generating clean energy or improving transportation or making the Internet work better and all those things. And small groups of people can have a really huge impact."

What I love about this quote is that he combines big problems with small groups.

A small group of people created Google. Not Procter & Gamble. Or AT&T.

Even at Apple, when Steve Jobs wanted to create the Macintosh, he moved his small group to a separate building so they wouldn't get bogged down in the big corporate bureaucracy that Apple was becoming.

Ultimately, they fired him for being too far from the corporate message.

Years later, when Apple was failing, they brought him back. What did he do? He cut most of the products and put people into small groups to solve big problems.

Before his death he revolutionized the movie industry, the computer industry, the music industry, TVs, and now even watches (watch sales have plummeted after the release of the Apple Watch).

All of this from a guy who finished one semester of studying calligraphy in college before dropping out.

Studying the history of Apple is like studying a microcosm of the history of how to create big ideas. Larry Page is recreating this with his new corporate structure.

---

"We don't have as many managers as we should, but we would rather have too few than too many."

The 20th century was the century of middle-class corporatism. It even became a "law" called "The Peter Principle" - everyone rises to their level of incompetence.

One of the problems society is having now is that the entire middle layer of management is being demoted, outsourced, replaced by technology, and fired.

This is not a bad or a good thing (although it's scary). But it's a return to the role of masters and apprentices without bureaucracy and paperwork in the middle.

It's how things get done. When ideas go from the head into action with few barriers in the middle.

To be a successful employee, you have to align your interests with those of the company, come up with ideas that further help the customers, and have the mandate to act on those ideas, whether they work or not.

That's why the employee who wrote much of the code inside the Google search engine, Craig Silverstein, is now a billionaire.

Where is he now? He's an employee at online education company, The Khan Academy.

---

"If you ask an economist what's driven economic growth, it's been major advances in things that mattered - the mechanization of farming, mass manufacturing, things like that. The problem is, our society is not organized around doing that."

Google is now making advances in driverless cars, delivery drones, and other methods of automation.

Everyone gets worried that this will cost jobs. But just look at history. Cars didn't ruin the horse industry. Everyone simply adjusted.

TV didn't replace books. Everything adjusted. The VCR didn't shut down movies.

The Internet didn't replace face to face communication (well, the jury is still out).

---

"What is the one sentence summary of how you change the world? Always work hard on something uncomfortably exciting!"

Not everyone wants to create a driverless car. Or clean energy. Or solve a billion person problem.

But I have a list of things that are uncomfortably exciting to me.

They are small, stupid things. Like I'd like to write a novel. Or perform standup comedy. Or maybe start another business based on my ideas for helping people.

Every day I wake up a tiny bit afraid. But I also try to push myself a little closer in those directions. I know then that's how I learn and grow.

Sometimes I push forward. Sometimes I don't. I want to get more comfortable with being uncomfortable.

---

"I do think there is an important artistic component in what we do. As a technology company I've tried to really stress that."

Nobody knows what the definition of Art is.

How about: something that doesn't exist except in the imagination, that you then bring out into the real world that has some mix of entertainment, enlightenment, and betterment.

I don't know. Something like that.

Certainly the iPad is a work of art. And the iPad has created works of art. And when I first saw a driverless car I thought, "that's beautiful".

I'm going to try and put my fingerprint on something today. And maybe it will be art.

---

"The idea that everyone should slavishly work so they do something inefficiently so they keep their job – that just doesn't make any sense to me. That can't be the right answer."

We've been hypnotized into thinking that the "normal life" is a "working life".

If you don't "go to work" then you must be sick or on the tiny bit of vacation allotted to you each year.

What if everything you did you can inject a little bit of leisure, a little bit of fun into it.

I have fun writing, except when I think I have to meet a deadline (work). I have fun making a business that people actually use except when I think about money too much (work).

When you are at the crossroads and your heart loves one path and doesn't love the other, forget about which path has the money and the work, take the path you love.

"We want to build technology that everybody loves using, and that affects everyone. We want to create beautiful, intuitive services and technologies that are so incredibly useful that people use them twice a day. Like they use a toothbrush. There aren't that many things people use twice a day."

What a great idea for a list of the day!

What are ten things that can be invented that people would use twice a day?

---

"You need to invent things and you need to get them to people. You need to commercialize those inventions. Obviously, the best way we've come up with doing that is through companies."

I was speaking to Naveen Jain, who made his billions on an early search engine, InfoSpace.

He just started a company to mine rare earth minerals on the Moon.

But his real goal is extra-planetary colonization.

Somehow we got around to the question of why have a company in the middle of that. He has billions. He can just go straight for the colonization part.

He said, "Every idea has to be sustainable. Profitability is proof that an idea is sustainable."

---

"You may think using Google's great, but I still think it's terrible."

K. Anders Ericsson made famous the "10,000 hour rule" popularized later by Malcom Gladwell.

The rule is: if you practice WITH INTENT for 10,000 hours then you will be world-class.

He then wondered why typists would often reach a certain speed level and then never improve no matter how many hours.

After doing  research, its because they forgot the "With intent" part. They were satisfied with "good enough".

You have to constantly come up with new metrics to measure yourself, to compete against yourself, to better the last plateau you reached.

Google is great. But it can be better. Having this mindset always forces you to push beyond the comfort zone.

Once they changed the way typists viewed their skills (by recreating the feeling of "beginner's mind") the typists continued to get faster.

---

"We have a mantra: don't be evil, which is to do the best things we know how for our users, for our customers, for everyone. So I think if we were known for that, it would be a wonderful thing."

Many people argue whether or not Google has succeeded at this. That's not the point.

The point is: Values before Money.

A business is a group of people with a goal to solve a problem. Values might be: we want to solve a problem, we want the customer to be happy, we want employees to feel like they have upward mobility, etc.

Once you lose your values, you'll lost the money as well. This why family-run businesses often die by the third generation ("Shirt sleeves to shirt sleeves in three generations).

The values of the founder got diluted through his descendants until the company failed.

I spoke to Dick Yuengling about this (CEO of the largest independent beer maker and a fifth generation business).

His family found an interesting way to solve the problem. The business is not inherited. Each generation has to BUY the business from the generation before it.

To do that, each generation needs its own values, its new way of doing things that keeps the brand fresh and ongoing.

---

"I think it is often easier to make progress on mega-ambitious dreams. Since no one else is crazy enough to do it, you have little competition. In fact, there are so few people this crazy that I feel like I know them all by first name."

Our parents have our best interests at heart and tell us how to be good adults.

Our schools have our best interests.

Our friends, colleagues, sometimes our bosses, sometimes government, think they have our best interests.

But it's only when everyone thinks you are crazy that you know you are going to create something that surprises everyone and really makes your own unique handprint on the world.

And because you went out of the comfort zone, you're only competing against the few other people as crazy as you are.

---

"You know what it's like to wake up in the middle of the night with a vivid dream? And you know that if you don't have a pencil and pad by the bed, it will be completely gone by the next morning. Sometimes it's important to wake up and stop dreaming. When a really great dream shows up, grab it."

For every article I've ever written, there's at least ten more I left behind in the middle of the night thinking I would remember in the morning.

I have to beat myself in the head. I . Will. Not. Remember....Must. Write. Down.

It's hard to wake up. And that's the only thing worth remembering. It's hard to wake up.

---

"I have always believed that technology should do the hard work - discovery, organization, communication - so users can do what makes them happiest: living and loving, not messing with annoying computers! That means making our products work together seamlessly."

This is a deep question - who are you? If you have a mechanical hand, is that "you"?

Conversely, if you lose a hand, did you lose a part of you. Are you no longer a complete person? The complete you?

If an implant is put into your brain to access Google, does that effect who you view your self to be?

When books were invented, memory suffered. We no longer had to remember as much, because we can look things up.

Does that make our brains less human?

I bet memory has suffered with the rise of Google. Does this mean our consciousness has suffered?

When we created fire, we outsourced part of our digestion to this new invention. Did this make our stomachs less human?

With technology taking care of the basic tasks of our brain and body, it allows us to achieve things we couldn't previously dream possible.

It allows us to learn and explore and to create past the current comfort zone.  It allows us to find the happiness, freedom, and well-being we deserve.

---

"Over time, our emerging high-usage products will likely generate significant new revenue streams for Google as well as for our partners, just as search does today."

This is it. This is why Larry Page has re-oriented Google into Alphabet.

Don't waste your most productive energies solving a problem that now only has incremental improvements.

Re-focus the best energies on solving harder and harder problems.

Always keeping the value of "how can I help a billion people" will keep Google from becoming a Borders bookstore (which went out of business after outsourcing all of their sales to Amazon).

How does this apply to the personal?

Instead of being a cog in the machine for some corporation, come up with ways to automate greater abundance.

Always understand that coming up with multiple ways to help people is ultimately the way to create the biggest impact.

Impact then creates health, friendship, competence, abundance, and freedom.

Oh my god, this answer is too long. And believe it or not, I cut it in half.

If I can just wake up every day and remind myself of these quotes by Larry Page I know I will have a better life.

But this is also why he created Alphabet and put Google underneath it.

To save the world. To save me.


 
Did I read that sign right?
"TOILET OUT OF ORDER.  PLEASE USE FLOOR BELOW"
 
 
In a Laundromat:
AUTOMATIC WASHING MACHINES: PLEASE REMOVE ALL YOUR CLOTHES WHEN THE LIGHT GOES OUT
 
In a London department store:
BARGAIN BASEMENT UPSTAIRS
 
In an office:
WOULD THE PERSON WHO TOOK THE STEP LADDER YESTERDAY PLEASE BRING IT BACK OR FURTHER STEPS WILL BE TAKEN
 
In an office:
AFTER TEA BREAK STAFF SHOULD EMPTY THE TEAPOT AND STAND UPSIDE DOWN ON THE DRAINING BOARD
 
Outside a secondhand shop :
WE EXCHANGE ANYTHING - BICYCLES, WASHING MACHINES, ETC. WHY NOT BRING YOUR WIFE ALONG AND GET A WONDERFUL BARGAIN?
 
Notice in health food shop window:
CLOSED DUE TO ILLNESS
 
 
Spotted in a safari park:
ELEPHANTS, PLEASE STAY IN YOUR CAR
 
 
Seen during a conference:
FOR ANYONE WHO HAS CHILDREN AND DOESN'T KNOW IT, THERE IS A DAY CARE ON THE 1ST FLOOR
 
 
Notice in a farmer's field:
THE FARMER ALLOWS WALKERS TO CROSS THE FIELD FOR FREE, BUT THE BULL CHARGES.
 
 
Message on a leaflet:
IF YOU CANNOT READ, THIS LEAFLET WILL TELL YOU HOW TO GET LESSONS
 
 
On a repair shop door:
WE CAN REPAIR ANYTHING. (PLEASE KNOCK HARD ON THE DOOR - THE BELL DOESN'T WORK)
 
 
Man Kills Self Before Shooting Wife and Daughter
This one I caught in the SGV Tribune the other day and called the Editorial Room and asked who wrote this. It took two or three readings before the editor realized that what he was reading was impossible!!! They put in a correction the next day.
 
 
Something Went Wrong in Jet Crash, Expert Says
Really? Ya think?
 
 
Police Begin Campaign to Run Down Jaywalkers
Now that's taking things a bit far!
 
 
Panda Mating Fails; Veterinarian Takes Over
What a guy!
 
 
Miners Refuse to Work after Death
No-good-for-nothing' lazy so-and-so's!
 
 
Juvenile Court to Try Shooting Defendant
See if that works any better than a fair trial!
 
 
War Dims Hope for Peace
I can see where it might have that effect!
 
 
If Strike Isn't Settled Quickly, It May Last Awhile
Ya think?!
 
 
Cold Wave Linked to Temperatures
Who would have thought!
 
 
Enfield  ( London ) Couple Slain; Police Suspect Homicide
They may be on to something!
 
 
Red Tape Holds Up New Bridges
You mean there's something stronger than duct tape?
 
 
Man Struck By Lightning: Faces Battery Charge
He probably IS the battery charge!
 
 
New Study of Obesity Looks for Larger Test Group
Weren't they fat enough?!
 
 
Astronaut Takes Blame for Gas in Spacecraft
That's what he gets for eating those beans!
 
 
Kids Make Nutritious Snacks
Do they taste like chicken?
 
 
Local  High School  Dropouts Cut in Half
Chainsaw Massacre all over again!
 
 
Hospitals are Sued by 7 Foot Doctors
Boy, are they tall!
 
 
And the winner is....
Typhoon Rips Through Cemetery; Hundreds Dead



 








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Thursday, September 3, 2015

Some people like the Jews, and some do not.




The Quest For Joy

It is possible to talk about joy, and then feel bad for not feeling as much joy as you would wish. But this isn't necessary. You are in the process of learning the skill of experiencing more joy. You can feel good about having this as your goal.

The Almighty leads a person along the path that he wants to go.

(See Talmud, Makos 10b.)

Ask for Divine assistance in your quest for more joy. You will live a happier and healthier life. You will be able to help others be more joyful. And you will be more joyful when you pray and devote yourself to spiritual pursuits.

Love Yehuda Lave





Fourth installment of my trip to the wonderful Israel Museum and its great art exhibits.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KxKBpqjadQ4&feature=em-upload_owner

"Some people like the Jews, and some do not.  But no thoughtful man can deny the fact that they are, beyond any question, the most formidable and the most remarkable race which has appeared in the world."

Winston Churchill – Prime Minister of Great Britain


 "The preservation of the Jews is really one of the most signal and illustrious acts of divine Providence… and what but a supernatural power could have preserved them in such a manner as none other nation upon earth hath been preserved.  Nor is the providence of God less remarkable in the destruction of their enemies, than in their preservation… We see that the great empires, which in their turn subdued and oppressed the people of God, are all come to ruin… And if such hath been the fatal end of the enemies and oppressors of the Jews, let it serve as a warning to all those, who at any time or upon any occasion are for raising a clamor and persecution against them."

Thomas Newton, Bishop of Bristol (1704-1782)


 "What is the Jew?...What kind of unique creature is this whom all the rulers of all the nations of the world have disgraced and crushed and expelled and destroyed; persecuted, burned and drowned, and who, despite their anger and their fury, continues to live and to flourish. What is this Jew whom they have never succeeded in enticing with all the enticements in the world, whose oppressors and persecutors only suggested that he deny (and disown) his religion and cast aside the faithfulness of his ancestors?!

Leo Tolstoy, What is the Jew? printed in Jewish World periodical, 1908


"I will insist the Hebrews have [contributed] more to civilize men than any other nation. If I was an atheist and believed in blind eternal fate, I should still believe that fate had ordained the Jews to be the most essential instrument for civilizing the nations ... They are the most glorious nation that ever inhabited this Earth. The Romans and their empire were but a bubble in comparison to the Jews. They have given religion to three-quarters of the globe and have influenced the affairs of mankind more and more happily than any other nation, ancient or modern."

John Adams, Second President of the United States
(From a letter to F. A. Van der Kemp [Feb. 16, 1808] Pennsylvania Historical Society)



This year, Chai Elul  commemorates the second Yahrzeit of the passing of Aaron Shalom Tepfer A"H.
The organization Aaron's Way was established in his memory.
Please use this opportunity during the Y'may Haratzon to donate, and to perpetuate Aaron Shalom's legacy of Loving Kindness and generosity. Donate today at: www.aaronsway.org

And don't forget to download the "Inscribed" album on iTunes
https://itunes.apple.com/us/album/ins...

Intifada? Netanyahu Offers 'Vehicle Protection'

Prime Minister acknowledges surging terror wave but offers little more than passive defensive measures.
By Gil Ronen
First Publish: 8/31/2015, 12:18 PM

Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu
Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu
Credit: Marc Israel Sellem

Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu acknowledged on Monday the surging terror wave that Israeli citizens have been subjected to in recent months and years but appeared to offer little in terms of concrete action to thwart it.

"I held a special discussion this morning with the Minister of Defense, the Minister for Internal Security and the Minister of Transportation, in order to deal with what is looking like a growing trend of terror attacks, in Jerusalem as well as Judea and Samaria," he said at the opening of the cabinet session. "We will beef up forces and increase vehicular protection to safeguard the security of the citizens of Israel."

The term "migun," which Netanyahu used, usually refers to installing rock-proof windshields in cars, and other forms of passive defense.

"The Israel Police has an important role in this, as it does in preserving law and order in general. I give full backing to the Minister for Internal Security, and his efforts to appoint the best man for the post of Israel Police Commissioner.

"Gal Hirsch is the right man in the right place," Netanyahu added, regarding the nominee for commissioner, who has come under fire from various circles. "He is an officer with values, dedicated, he has great capabilities to create changes and contribute to the strengthening of the Israel Police and the rule of law in Israel."

Massive terror onslaught

Jerusalem is under a full-blown massive terror onslaught – or "intifada," as Arabs call it, according to statistics compiled by the Ministry of Construction and Housing, which operates a security service in the area known as the "Old City Basin." The area includes the Old City quarters inside the city's ancient walls, as well as the Mount of Olives, the Silwan (Shiloah) neigborhood and the City of David.

The numbers for June and July indicate an average of close to ten terror attacks per day in this part of the city.

The statistics, which were published in Yediot Aharonot Wednesday, do not include terror attacks in the city's eastern villages and neighborhoods, and this means that the full numbers for Jerusalem are much worse.

In June and July, a total of 580 terror attacks were documented, against both civilians and security forces. These included 477 rock attacks, as well as 28 firebomb attacks against vehicles and homes in which Jews reside. Additional incidents involved throwing empty glass bottles, firing fireworks and damaging property.

The terror attacks in June peaked at 359, of which 213 were in the City of David sector, 125 at the Mount of Olives and the mountain ridge, and 21 in the Old City. They include 307 rock attacks, 12 firebombs, four cases of grave vandalization at the Mount of Olives, and six attacks against Jews in the Old City, five of them against civilians and one aimed at a Border Police warrior.

The total of recorded terror events was down slightly in July, at 221. They included 170 rock attacks, 16 firebombs, one grave desecration, four incidents in which Arabs threw glass bottles at Jews, and several fireworks attacks.

The Jerusalem Police said in response that its "resolute" actions against terrorism led to a decline in terror attacks in the last few months, noting that most of the attacks are carried out against security forces, because of the ongoing friction between them and lawbreakers in eastern Jerusalem

Growing Doubt: a Scientists' Experience of GMOs
by Jonathan Latham, PhD


Synopsis: I am a scientist who once made and used GMO crops for research. Twenty years of experience has taught me important lessons about them. One concerns the lack of scientific integrity of GMO risk assessments. Careful study of the documents shows that applicants (mostly companies) are gaming the system in numerous ways; at the same time, government regulators are allowing them to do so. None of this would matter if GMOs were inherently safe, but they are not. They even have dangers that are rarely discussed, even by their critics, but which should be more widely known. These two understandings have led me to conclude that no GMO currently on the market would pass an honest risk assessment, even by the rather low standards that most national regulations and laws require.

Best wishes
Jonathan

Jonathan Latham, PhD
Executive Director
The Bioscience Resource Project
Ithaca, NY 14850 USA


Glenn Beck to Join Trump, Cruz at Stop Iran Deal Rally

Conservative talk show host will speak at rally on Capitol Hill next Wednesday, ahead of crucial vote.

By Gil Ronen
First Publish: 9/1/2015, 9:01 AM

Created by Wibbitz

Conservative talk show host Glenn Beck is joining 2016 presidential contenders Donald Trump and Sen. Ted Cruz (R-Texas) at a "Stop the Iran Deal Rally" at the Capitol next Wednesday (Sept. 9), according to The Hill.

The rally is being organized by the Tea Party Patriots, Center for Security Policy, and Zionist Organization of America. It will take place one day after lawmakers return from their recess and just ahead of a vote on the deal negotiated with Iran over its nuclear program.

"Glenn Beck's decision to speak on September 9th at the Stop the Iran Deal Rally underlines the momentum behind the movement to stop President Obama's nuclear deal with Iran," said Tea Party Patriots CEO and co-founder Jenny Beth Martin in a statement.

Martin said Beck's appearance would help "give voice to the millions of Americans who oppose this dangerous nuclear deal with Iran."

"Every day, more Americans are learning this deal ignores our Constitution by avoiding the treaty process and makes the world a more dangerous place by undermining both our national security and the security of our allies in the Middle East," she said.

"The Stop the Iran Deal Rally will ensure those millions of voices are heard by everyone inside the U.S. Capitol."

The Hill said that it is not clear if Beck and Trump will appear at the same time during the rally. There is tension between the two, as Beck has "disparaged Trump in recent weeks, calling him a false conservative and 'arrogant.'"

Pressure on Democratic lawmakers who have not made their positions on the deal known is building. Rabbis from around the country are planning to hand-deliver letters to the undecided Democrats, and the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) also plans to organize meetings with lawmakers starting next week.

Republicans are planning to introduce a resolution of disapproval of the Iran deal, which would prevent US sanctions on Iran from being lifted. To succeed, they would need the support of six Democrats in the Senate, but thus far, Sens. Charles Schumer (N.Y.) and Robert Menendez (N.J.), are the only Democrat senators who have publicly opposed the deal.

Sen. Chris Coons (D-Del.) is planning to announce his decision on the deal on Tuesday, at the University of Delaware. Sen. Ben Cardin (D-Md.), ranking member of the Foreign Relations Committee, is yet to declare his intentions.



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Wednesday, September 2, 2015

Apartheid? Really??City of David conference, and what does it mean to be addicted to something?


Yesterday I had some bad links on my email..  I have fixed them now and if you go to my blog at YehudaLave.com you will be able to see  links that did not work.

2Get and 2Give
creates many problems

so double it to........

4Give and 4Get
resolves many problems

Shalom



Here is an email I just got regarding a seminar:

Recent surveys showed that 40 Million Americans are addicted to cigarettes, alcohol or drugs.

70 Million American adults are addicted to food.

And 420 Million people around the world are addicted to the internet...(of course they have no idea about this true figure)

The numbers are overwhelming, but not surprising. (and of course these are just the 300 million Americans)

Every cell in our bodies contains thousands of opiate receptors, driving us to seek pleasure. If we don't satisfy this need in a positive manner, we are likely to end up either medicated or addicted.


I didn't realize until four weeks ago that I was one of the 70 million addicted to food.

I didn't join the seminar, but I have been working on my addiction and with G-d's help (like we need for everything else in this life especially additions), I will overcome my addiction.

Of course I also realize that something that is an addiction is not necessarily bad. All of the above things above in the right doses and without being addicted can be good for you!! It is the addiction that is the problem, and the results from the addiction. Food or liquor or the internet in themselves are very good and part of G-d''s world.

Definition of Addiction

Public Policy Statement: Definition of Addiction

Short Definition of Addiction:

Addiction is a primary, chronic disease of brain reward, motivation, memory and related circuitry. Dysfunction in these circuits leads to characteristic biological, psychological, social and spiritual manifestations. This is reflected in an individual pathologically pursuing reward and/or relief by substance use and other behaviors.

Addiction is characterized by inability to consistently abstain, impairment in behavioral control, craving, diminished recognition of significant problems with one's behaviors and interpersonal relationships, and a dysfunctional emotional response. Like other chronic diseases, addiction often involves cycles of relapse and remission. Without treatment or engagement in recovery activities, addiction is progressive and can result in disability or premature death



and this is the short definition, I have the long definition at the bottom of the email.

Love Yehuda Lave


Sunday I took a trip to the Israel Museum to see Rembrandt and broke up the pictures into four groups. Here is 3 of 4 in the group:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QZUhscDydqs&feature=em-upload_owner




Kenneth Meshoe

South African MP: 'Nothing in Israel that Looks Like Apartheid'


Related:

South African Member of Parliament Kenneth Meshoe spoke out against the claim by Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions (BDS) movement activists that Israel is an "apartheid state."

"There are many Christians that support Israel, but they don't come out…Those who know what real apartheid is, as I know, know that there is nothing in Israel that looks like apartheid," Meshoe, who is the president of the African Christian Democratic Party, told Israel's Channel 10. He added that those who support Israel in South Africa frequently encounter "intimidation."

The view that Israel is an apartheid state, he said, "is an empty political statement that does not hold truth. You see people of different colors, backgrounds, and religions [coexist in the country]."

"The BDS movement is a real pain…to us in South Africa who love the truth. [The] BDS movement is not a democratic movement; they are a movement of intimidation, a movement that performs hatred. People who don't believe in hatred should not allow the BDS movement to stop them from doing the right thing," added Meshoe, the Jerusalem Postreported.

Meshoe made the comments in the context of discussing the recent controversy involving the Jewish reggae star Matisyahu, who was banned from a music festival in Spain due to BDS pressure and his refusal to accede to the festival's demand that he publicly endorse a Palestinian state, but was later reinvited and performed.

By: JNS.org


Was This the Temple Era 'Stone of Claims'? (This conference will be tomorrow -Thursday)

A unique stepped structure has been exposed on the street ascending from the Siloam Pool to the Temple Mount.By Arutz Sheva staff
First Publish: 8/31/2015, 11:02 AM

Dr. Joe Uziel atop unique find.
Dr. Joe Uziel atop unique find.
Shai Halevy, courtesy IAA.

An intriguing find consisting of an impressive pyramid-shaped staircase constructed of large ashlar stones was uncovered, in an archaeological excavation still being conducted by the Israel Antiquities Authority.

The excavation is located in the Jerusalem Walls National Park in the City of David, site of ancient Jerusalem, and is being carried out in cooperation with the Israel Nature and Parks Authority and the City of David Foundation.

This structure is situated alongside the 2,000-year-old Second Temple stepped street, which carried pilgrims on their way from the Shiloah (Siloam) Pool to the Temple, which stood atop the Temple Mount.

The street, a section of which was excavated in the past, is remarkably well-preserved and is built of enormous stone slabs. The street most likely runs above the 2,000-year-old drainage channel, discovered a number of years ago, which carried rain water out of the city. It was constructed sometime in the fourth decade of the first century CE, and was one of the largest construction projects undertaken in Jerusalem during the Second Temple period.

Dozens of whole pottery vessels, stone vessels and glassware were found at the foot of the pyramid-shaped staircase.

According to archaeologists Nahshon Szanton and Dr. Joe Uziel, who direct of the excavation on behalf of the Israel Antiquities Authority, "The structure exposed is unique."

"To date such a structure has yet to be found along the stepped street in the numerous excavations that have taken place in Jerusalem and to the best of our knowledge outside of it," they said in a joint statement announcing the discovery. "For this reason, its exact use remains enigmatic. The structure is built along the street in a place that is clearly visible from afar by passers-by making their way to the Temple.

"We believe the structure was a kind of monumental podium that attracted the public's attention when walking on the city's main street," they added. "It would be very interesting to know what was said there 2,000 years ago. Were messages announced here on behalf of the government? Perhaps news or gossip, or admonitions and street preaching – unfortunately we do not know.

"Bliss and Dickie, two British archaeologists who discovered a small portion of this structure about 100 years ago, mistakenly thought these were steps that led into a house that was destroyed. They would certainly be excited if they could come back today and see it completely revealed."

'Stone of Claims'

"We know from rabbinic sources there were 'stones' that were used for public purposes during the Second Temple period," the statement continued.

"For example, one source cites the 'auction block' in connection with the street: '[a master] will not set up a market stand and put them (slaves) on the auction block' (Sifra, BeHar 6). In the Mishnah and Talmud the 'Stone of Claims' is mentioned as a place that existed in Jerusalem during the Second Temple period: 'Our Rabbis taught: There was a Stone of Claims in Jerusalem: whoever lost an article repaired thither, and whoever found an article did likewise. The latter stood and proclaimed, and the former submitted his identification marks and received it back. And in reference to this we learnt: Go forth and see whether the Stone of Claims is covered' (Bava Metzia 28:B)."

This Thursday, at the City of David Studies of Ancient Jerusalem's 16th Annual Conference that will be open to the public, Szanton and Dr. Uziel will present their findings from the excavation and the different interpretations regarding the nature of the podium.

"Given the lack of a clear archaeological parallel to the stepped-structure, the purpose of the staircase remains a mystery. It is certainly possible the rabbinical sources provide valuable information about structures, such as this, although for the time being there is no definitive proof."

Long Definition of Addiction:

Addiction is a primary, chronic disease of brain reward, motivation, memory and related circuitry. Addiction affects neurotransmission and interactions within reward structures of the brain, including the nucleus accumbens, anterior cingulate cortex, basal forebrain and amygdala, such that motivational hierarchies are altered and addictive behaviors, which may or may not include alcohol and other drug use, supplant healthy, self-care related behaviors. Addiction also affects neurotransmission and interactions between cortical and hippocampal circuits and brain reward structures, such that the memory of previous exposures to rewards (such as food, sex, alcohol and other drugs) leads to a biological and behavioral response to external cues, in turn triggering craving and/or engagement in addictive behaviors.

The neurobiology of addiction encompasses more than the neurochemistry of reward.1 The frontal cortex of the brain and underlying white matter connections between the frontal cortex and circuits of reward, motivation and memory are fundamental in the manifestations of altered impulse control, altered judgment, and the dysfunctional pursuit of rewards (which is often experienced by the affected person as a desire to "be normal") seen in addiction--despite cumulative adverse consequences experienced from engagement in substance use and other addictive behaviors. The frontal lobes are important in inhibiting impulsivity and in assisting individuals to appropriately delay gratification. When persons with addiction manifest problems in deferring gratification, there is a neurological locus of these problems in the frontal cortex. Frontal lobe morphology, connectivity and functioning are still in the process of maturation during adolescence and young adulthood, and early exposure to substance use is another significant factor in the development of addiction. Many neuroscientists believe that developmental morphology is the basis that makes early-life exposure to substances such an important factor.

Genetic factors account for about half of the likelihood that an individual will develop addiction. Environmental factors interact with the person's biology and affect the extent to which genetic factors exert their influence. Resiliencies the individual acquires (through parenting or later life experiences) can affect the extent to which genetic predispositions lead to the behavioral and other manifestations of addiction. Culture also plays a role in how addiction becomes actualized in persons with biological vulnerabilities to the development of addiction.

Other factors that can contribute to the appearance of addiction, leading to its characteristic bio-psycho-socio-spiritual manifestations, include:

  1. The presence of an underlying biological deficit in the function of reward circuits, such that drugs and behaviors which enhance reward function are preferred and sought as reinforcers;
  2. The repeated engagement in drug use or other addictive behaviors, causing neuroadaptation in motivational circuitry leading to impaired control over further drug use or engagement in addictive behaviors;
  3. Cognitive and affective distortions, which impair perceptions and compromise the ability to deal with feelings, resulting in significant self-deception;
  4. Disruption of healthy social supports and problems in interpersonal relationships which impact the development or impact of resiliencies;
  5. Exposure to trauma or stressors that overwhelm an individual's coping abilities;
  6. Distortion in meaning, purpose and values that guide attitudes, thinking and behavior;
  7. Distortions in a person's connection with self, with others and with the transcendent (referred to as God by many, the Higher Power by 12-steps groups, or higher consciousness by others); and
  8. The presence of co-occurring psychiatric disorders in persons who engage in substance use or other addictive behaviors.

Addiction is characterized by2:

  1. Inability to consistently Abstain;
  2. Impairment in Behavioral control;
  3. Craving; or increased "hunger" for drugs or rewarding experiences;
  4. Diminished recognition of significant problems with one's behaviors and interpersonal relationships; and
  5. A dysfunctional Emotional response.

The power of external cues to trigger craving and drug use, as well as to increase the frequency of engagement in other potentially addictive behaviors, is also a characteristic of addiction, with the hippocampus being important in memory of previous euphoric or dysphoric experiences, and with the amygdala being important in having motivation concentrate on selecting behaviors associated with these past experiences.

Although some believe that the difference between those who have addiction, and those who do not, is the quantity or frequency of alcohol/drug use, engagement in addictive behaviors (such as gambling or spending)3, or exposure to other external rewards (such as food or sex), a characteristic aspect of addiction is the qualitative wayin which the individual responds to such exposures, stressors and environmental cues. A particularly pathological aspect of the way that persons with addiction pursue substance use or external rewards is that preoccupation with, obsession with and/or pursuit of rewards (e.g., alcohol and other drug use) persist despite the accumulation of adverse consequences. These manifestations can occur compulsively or impulsively, as a reflection of impaired control.

Persistent risk and/or recurrence of relapse, after periods of abstinence, is another fundamental feature of addiction. This can be triggered by exposure to rewarding substances and behaviors, by exposure to environmental cues to use, and by exposure to emotional stressors that trigger heightened activity in brain stress circuits.4

In addiction there is a significant impairment in executive functioning, which manifests in problems with perception, learning, impulse control, compulsivity, and judgment. People with addiction often manifest a lower readiness to change their dysfunctional behaviors despite mounting concerns expressed by significant others in their lives; and display an apparent lack of appreciation of the magnitude of cumulative problems and complications. The still developing frontal lobes of adolescents may both compound these deficits in executive functioning and predispose youngsters to engage in "high risk" behaviors, including engaging in alcohol or other drug use. The profound drive or craving to use substances or engage in apparently rewarding behaviors, which is seen in many patients with addiction, underscores the compulsive or avolitional aspect of this disease. This is the connection with "powerlessness" over addiction and "unmanageability" of life, as is described in Step 1 of 12 Steps programs.

Addiction is more than a behavioral disorder. Features of addiction include aspects of a person's behaviors, cognitions, emotions, and interactions with others, including a person's ability to relate to members of their family, to members of their community, to their own psychological state, and to things that transcend their daily experience.

Behavioral manifestations and complications of addiction, primarily due to impaired control, can include:

  1. Excessive use and/or engagement in addictive behaviors, at higher frequencies and/or quantities than the person intended, often associated with a persistent desire for and unsuccessful attempts at behavioral control;
  2. Excessive time lost in substance use or recovering from the effects of substance use and/or engagement in addictive behaviors, with significant adverse impact on social and occupational functioning (e.g. the development of interpersonal relationship problems or the neglect of responsibilities at home, school or work);
  3. Continued use and/or engagement in addictive behaviors, despite the presence of persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problems which may have been caused or exacerbated by substance use and/or related addictive behaviors;
  4. A narrowing of the behavioral repertoire focusing on rewards that are part of addiction; and
  5. An apparent lack of ability and/or readiness to take consistent, ameliorative action despite recognition of problems.

Cognitive changes in addiction can include:

  1. Preoccupation with substance use;
  2. Altered evaluations of the relative benefits and detriments associated with drugs or rewarding behaviors; and
  3. The inaccurate belief that problems experienced in one's life are attributable to other causes rather than being a predictable consequence of addiction.

Emotional changes in addiction can include:

  1. Increased anxiety, dysphoria and emotional pain;
  2. Increased sensitivity to stressors associated with the recruitment of brain stress systems, such that "things seem more stressful" as a result; and
  3. Difficulty in identifying feelings, distinguishing between feelings and the bodily sensations of emotional arousal, and describing feelings to other people (sometimes referred to as alexithymia).

The emotional aspects of addiction are quite complex. Some persons use alcohol or other drugs or pathologically pursue other rewards because they are seeking "positive reinforcement" or the creation of a positive emotional state ("euphoria"). Others pursue substance use or other rewards because they have experienced relief from negative emotional states ("dysphoria"), which constitutes "negative reinforcement." Beyond the initial experiences of reward and relief, there is a dysfunctional emotional state present in most cases of addiction that is associated with the persistence of engagement with addictive behaviors. The state of addiction is not the same as the state of intoxication. When anyone experiences mild intoxication through the use of alcohol or other drugs, or when one engages non-pathologically in potentially addictive behaviors such as gambling or eating, one may experience a "high", felt as a "positive" emotional state associated with increased dopamine and opioid peptide activity in reward circuits. After such an experience, there is a neurochemical rebound, in which the reward function does not simply revert to baseline, but often drops below the original levels. This is usually not consciously perceptible by the individual and is not necessarily associated with functional impairments.

Over time, repeated experiences with substance use or addictive behaviors are not associated with ever increasing reward circuit activity and are not as subjectively rewarding. Once a person experiences withdrawal from drug use or comparable behaviors, there is an anxious, agitated, dysphoric and labile emotional experience, related to suboptimal reward and the recruitment of brain and hormonal stress systems, which is associated with withdrawal from virtually all pharmacological classes of addictive drugs. While tolerance develops to the "high," tolerance does not develop to the emotional "low" associated with the cycle of intoxication and withdrawal. Thus, in addiction, persons repeatedly attempt to create a "high"--but what they mostly experience is a deeper and deeper "low." While anyone may "want" to get "high", those with addiction feel a "need" to use the addictive substance or engage in the addictive behavior in order to try to resolve their dysphoric emotional state or their physiological symptoms of withdrawal. Persons with addiction compulsively use even though it may not make them feel good, in some cases long after the pursuit of "rewards" is not actually pleasurable.5 Although people from any culture may choose to "get high" from one or another activity, it is important to appreciate that addiction is not solely a function of choice. Simply put, addiction is not a desired condition.

As addiction is a chronic disease, periods of relapse, which may interrupt spans of remission, are a common feature of addiction. It is also important to recognize that return to drug use or pathological pursuit of rewards is not inevitable.

Clinical interventions can be quite effective in altering the course of addiction. Close monitoring of the behaviors of the individual and contingency management, sometimes including behavioral consequences for relapse behaviors, can contribute to positive clinical outcomes. Engagement in health promotion activities which promote personal responsibility and accountability, connection with others, and personal growth also contribute to recovery. It is important to recognize that addiction can cause disability or premature death, especially when left untreated or treated inadequately.

The qualitative ways in which the brain and behavior respond to drug exposure and engagement in addictive behaviors are different at later stages of addiction than in earlier stages, indicating progression, which may not be overtly apparent. As is the case with other chronic diseases, the condition must be monitored and managed over time to:

  1. Decrease the frequency and intensity of relapses;
  2. Sustain periods of remission; and
  3. Optimize the person's level of functioning during periods of remission.

In some cases of addiction, medication management can improve treatment outcomes. In most cases of addiction, the integration of psychosocial rehabilitation and ongoing care with evidence-based pharmacological therapy provides the best results. Chronic disease management is important for minimization of episodes of relapse and their impact. Treatment of addiction saves lives †

Addiction professionals and persons in recovery know the hope that is found in recovery. Recovery is available even to persons who may not at first be able to perceive this hope, especially when the focus is on linking the health consequences to the disease of addiction. As in other health conditions, self-management, with mutual support, is very important in recovery from addiction. Peer support such as that found in various "self-help" activities is beneficial in optimizing health status and functional outcomes in recovery. ‡

Recovery from addiction is best achieved through a combination of self-management, mutual support, and professional care provided by trained and certified professionals.

 

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† See ASAM Public Policy Statement on Treatment for Alcohol and Other Drug Addiction, Adopted: May 01, 1980, Revised: January 01, 2010

‡ see ASAM Public Policy Statement on The Relationship between Treatment and Self Help: A Joint Statement of the American Society of Addiction Medicine, the American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry, and the American Psychiatric Association, Adopted: December 01, 1997

Explanatory footnotes:

1. The neurobiology of reward has been well understood for decades, whereas the neurobiology of addiction is still being explored. Most clinicians have learned of reward pathways including projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the brain, through the median forebrain bundle (MFB), and terminating in the nucleus accumbens (Nuc Acc), in which dopamine neurons are prominent. Current neuroscience recognizes that the neurocircuitry of reward also involves a rich bi-directional circuitry connecting the nucleus accumbens and the basal forebrain. It is the reward circuitry where reward is registered, and where the most fundamental rewards such as food, hydration, sex, and nurturing exert a strong and life-sustaining influence. Alcohol, nicotine, other drugs and pathological gambling behaviors exert their initial effects by acting on the same reward circuitry that appears in the brain to make food and sex, for example, profoundly reinforcing. Other effects, such as intoxication and emotional euphoria from rewards, derive from activation of the reward circuitry. While intoxication and withdrawal are well understood through the study of reward circuitry, understanding of addiction requires understanding of a broader network of neural connections involving forebrain as well as midbrain structures. Selection of certain rewards, preoccupation with certain rewards, response to triggers to pursue certain rewards, and motivational drives to use alcohol and other drugs and/or pathologically seek other rewards, involve multiple brain regions outside of reward neurocircuitry itself.

2. These five features are not intended to be used as "diagnostic criteria" for determining if addiction is present or not. Although these characteristic features are widely present in most cases of addiction, regardless of the pharmacology of the substance use seen in addiction or the reward that is pathologically pursued, each feature may not be equally prominent in every case. The diagnosis of addiction requires a comprehensive biological, psychological, social and spiritual assessment by a trained and certified professional.

3. In this document, the term "addictive behaviors" refers to behaviors that are commonly rewarding and are a feature in many cases of addiction. Exposure to these behaviors, just as occurs with exposure to rewarding drugs, is facilitative of the addiction process rather than causative of addiction. The state of brain anatomy and physiology is the underlying variable that is more directly causative of addiction. Thus, in this document, the term "addictive behaviors" does not refer to dysfunctional or socially disapproved behaviors, which can appear in many cases of addiction. Behaviors, such as dishonesty, violation of one's values or the values of others, criminal acts etc., can be a component of addiction; these are best viewed as complications that result from rather than contribute to addiction. 
4. The anatomy (the brain circuitry involved) and the physiology (the neuro-transmitters involved) in these three modes of relapse (drug- or reward-triggered relapse vs. cue-triggered relapse vs. stress-triggered relapse) have been delineated through neuroscience research.

Relapse triggered by exposure to addictive/rewarding drugs, including alcohol, involves the nucleus accumbens and the VTA-MFB-Nuc Acc neural axis (the brain's mesolimbic dopaminergic "incentive salience circuitry"--see footnote 2 above). Reward-triggered relapse also is mediated by glutamatergic circuits projecting to the nucleus accumbens from the frontal cortex.

Relapse triggered by exposure to conditioned cues from the environment involves glutamate circuits, originating in frontal cortex, insula, hippocampus and amygdala projecting to mesolimbic incentive salience circuitry.

Relapse triggered by exposure to stressful experiences involves brain stress circuits beyond the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis that is well known as the core of the endocrine stress system. There are two of these relapse-triggering brain stress circuits – one originates in noradrenergic nucleus A2 in the lateral tegmental area of the brain stem and projects to the hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, frontal cortex, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and uses norepinephrine as its neurotransmitter; the other originates in the central nucleus of the amygdala, projects to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and uses corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) as its neurotransmitter.

5. Pathologically pursuing reward (mentioned in the Short Version of this definition) thus has multiple components. It is not necessarily the amount of exposure to the reward (e.g., the dosage of a drug) or the frequency or duration of the exposure that is pathological. In addiction, pursuit of rewards persists, despite life problems that accumulate due to addictive behaviors, even when engagement in the behaviors ceases to be pleasurable. Similarly, in earlier stages of addiction, or even before the outward manifestations of addiction have become apparent, substance use or engagement in addictive behaviors can be an attempt to pursue relief from dysphoria; while in later stages of the disease, engagement in addictive behaviors can persist even though the behavior no longer provides relief.

 




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