Thursday, September 13, 2018

The 10 days between Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur and Vienna Art Museums

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Yehuda Lave, Spiritual Advisor and Counselor

The main sign of a Jew who is truly devoted to Torah is that he does everything in his power never to cause emotional anguish to another. The sin of hurting another's feelings deliberately is called ona'at devarim (Vayikra 25:17). It applies to words or gestures which makes others feel shamed, humiliated or unimportant. This includes name-calling, criticism, ridicule, sarcasm, teasing and humiliating punishments.

Love Yehuda Lave

I returned August 15 to Jerusalem after a 16 day absence from Israel. I visited over 100 synagogues, graves and holy spots throughout Czech and Vienna, along with castles and tourist spots. My friend the Cabalist, says like the Bal Shem Tov, I was gathering up the holy sparks of Jewishness that has been trapped there and bringing the spiritual energy back to Jerusalem. I hope I have accomplished that goal, but I know for sure that I brought back lots of pictures. There are too many to share at one time so I am trying something new and sharing them day by day as experienced with a 16 day delay. I will repeat this introduction each day. I have been studying Jewish history and Israel in my time in Jerusalem, but the history of the Jewish people in modern times from 1492 to 1945 was in central Europe where the majority of the Jewish people lived. It is worth studying and knowing about and by sharing it with you my friends, I hope I am expanding your knowledge as well. There are a few more days of pictures left


Ten Days of Repentance

The Ten Days of Repentance (Hebrew: עשרת ימי תשובה‎, Aseret Yemei Teshuva) are the first ten days of the Hebrew month of Tishrei, usually sometime in the month of September, beginning with the Jewish holiday of Rosh Hashanah and ending with the conclusion of Yom Kippur.


Introduction Main articles: Repentance in Judaism and Baal teshuva

During this time it is considered appropriate for Jews to practice Teshuvah (literally: "returning" or "repentance") which is examining one's ways, engaging in repentance and the improvement of their ways in anticipation of Yom Kippur. A "penitent" is referred to as a baal teshuva ("master [of] repentance"). This repentance can be expressed in early morning prayers, known as selichot, which capture the penitential spirit appropriate to the occasion and charity, acts of Hesed ("loving-kindness"), or self-reflection.

The days Main articles: High Holidays, Rosh Hashanah, Fast of Gedalia, Special Shabbat § Shabbat Shuvah, and Yom Kippur

The first two days of a Ten Days of Repentance are on Rosh Hashanah. One of those days may occur on a Shabbat as well, making that day of Rosh Hashanah on which Shabbat occurs stricter in observance, meaning the observances of Shabbat are followed than a Rosh Hashanah that occurs on any other day but Shabbat (Saturday). When Rosh Hashanah occurs on a Shabbat a few additional prayers in the mahzor ("prayer book") are added as well as excluded in keeping with the combined theme of a Rosh Hashanah and Shabbat combination.

The third day is always Fast of Gedalia, it follows Rosh HaShanah. It is a half day fast, meaning it is only observed from dawn of the third day until dusk of that same day. However, when the third of Tishrei falls on Shabbat, the fast is postponed to the fourth day.

After Rosh Hashanah ends and before Yom Kippur starts the next notable day is the special Shabbat that has its own name Shabbat Shuvah ("Sabbath [of] Return") meaning the Sabbath devoted to "teshuva" which means "repentance" in Judaism.

The tenth day is the last and it is always the serious Biblically mandated fast of Yom Kippur. Leviticus 23:27 decrees that Yom Kippur is a strict day of rest and of fasting. Yom Kippur can also fall out (meaning be observed) on a Shabbat, one of the rare times when fasting is allowed on that day. Even when it is on a regular weekday, Yom Kippur is still observed as a "Shabbat" because in the Torah it is referred to as a שבת שבתון "Sabbath [of] Sabbaths" Leviticus 23:32.

Observances Main articles: Repentance in Judaism, Jewish services, and Tzedakah

Three of the main observances are themes that are repeated in both the Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur prayer services and printed in every mahzor ("holiday prayer book") of those two holy days: "Repentance, Prayer and Charity (teshuva, tefila, tzedaka) remove the evil decree":[1]

"In almost all editions of the Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur machzor, the words ותשובה ותפלה וצדקה repentance, prayer, and charity, are crowned in smaller type with the words [respectively] צום קול ממון, fast, voice, money. These superscripts are meant to indicate that sincere repentance includes fasting, prayer recited in a loud voice, and donations to charity.[1] Rosh Hashanah rituals Main articles: Rosh Hashanah, Shofar, and Tashlikh

There are many observances, customs, rituals and prayers said and performed on Rosh Hashanah, such as:

  • Shofar the blowing of the ram's horn that is mandated by the Torah Leviticus 23:24 and Numbers 29:1.
  • Tashlikh the symbolic "casting off" of one sins at a river, lake or ocean, only a custom, not mandated by the Torah.
  • Kittel, white robe worn by some men as custom during day time services, also worn on night and day on Yom Kippur. A custom not required in the Torah.
  • Avinu Malkeinu "Our Father Our King" prayer is recited.
  • Piyyutim, extra poetical prayers added by the rabbis of the Middle Ages known as the Rishonim.
  • Symbolic fruits and foods known as "simanim" or "signs" in Hebrew, eaten as symbolic good signs to evoke good omens and benevolent Divine providence at the festive night meals, as customs but not required by the Torah.
  • Lekach a symbolic honey cake eaten by some, as a custom. Not required by the Torah or the rabbis.

Fasting Main articles: Fast of Gedalia and Yom Kippur

Fasting is done partially only on Fast of Gedalia and for the full day of Yom Kippur. Money in any form is not handled or carried on Jewish holidays according to Jewish law, but promises to make donations are allowed.

Daily selichot Main article: Selichot

In contemporary Judaism, many congregations offer a Selichot service near midnight on the Saturday night preceding the Ten Days of Repentance. This, often short, prayer service serves as a preamble to the High Holy Days (Yom Kippur in particular). The service itself comprises prayers of atonement, the liturgy of which may be found in many machzorim (prayer books for the High Holy Days) or in special prayer books or pamphlets known as "slechot."

Shabbat Shuvah

Shabbat Shuvah ("Sabbath [of] Return" שבת שובה) or Shabbat Teshuvah ("Sabbath [of] Repentance" שבת תשובה) refers to the Shabbat that occurs during the Ten Days of Repentance between Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur. This Shabbat is named after the first word of the Haftarah that is read on that day, Hosea 14:2-10, and literally means "Return!" The alternative name, Shabbat Teshuvah (Sabbath of Repentance), is due to its being one of the Aseret Yemei Teshuvah (Ten Day of Repentance).

Kapparot Main article: Kapparot

Some Jews and communities have the custom of performing Kapparot during a weekday, a ritual in which either a chicken or money is swung over one's head usually three times as a symbolic atonement by the chicken or the money "assuming the sins" of the one performing the ritual. This custom is not required by the Torah.

Five prohibitions of Yom Kippur

On Yom Kippur additional prohibitions are observed similar to the fast of Tisha B'Av, as detailed in the Jewish oral tradition (Mishnah tractate Yoma 8:1) because the Torah Leviticus 23:27 stipulates that ועניתם את נפשתיכם "and you shall afflict your souls" and the Talmud therefore defines self-imposed "affliction" during Yom Kippur only, as follows:

  1. No eating and drinking
  2. No wearing of shoes with leather soles
  3. No bathing or washing
  4. No anointing oneself with perfumes or lotions
  5. No sexual relations

making the culmination of the ten days a very serious set of observances.

Yom Kippur is over at sundown on the tenth day at nightfall but is 'confirmed' as concluded after the recitation of the Kaddish following the end of ne'ila ("closing") prayer and the shofar is sounded. The services end in joy with the hope that all have been inscribed in the Book of Life.

Changes and additions in the prayers Main articles: Avinu Malkeinu, Selichot, Piyyut, Mahzor, and Ne'ila

As detailed in the Jewish Encyclopedia:[2]

  1. The Talmud (Berakhot 12b) mentions that on these days the close of the third benediction in the "'Amidah" reads "the Holy King" instead of "the Holy God"; and that on work-days the close of the eighth benediction reads "the King of Judgment" (lit. "the King, the Judgment") instead of "King loving righteousness and judgment."[2]
  2. The treatise Soferim, dating from the seventh or eighth century, mentions (xix. 8) some insertions which were made in the first and second benedictions and in the last two, and which are now found in all prayer-books; in the first (after "for the sake of His Name in love"): "Remember us for life, King who delights in life; and inscribe us in the book of life, for Your sake, living God"; in the second (after "make salvation to grow"): "Who is like You, merciful Father, remembering His creatures in mercy for life"; in the last but one, near the end: "And inscribe for life all the sons of Your covenant"; in the last benediction immediately before the close: "May we be remembered and inscribed before You in the book of life, of blessing, of peace, and of good sustenance." In the last service of Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur) "seal" is used in the place of "inscribe" throughout. In the Ashkenazi Jews' ritual, at the close of the last benediction, the words "who blesseth his people Israel with peace" are shortened into "the Maker of Peace."[2]
  3. The invocations beginning "Avinu Malkeinu" (Our Father, our King) are read in the morning and afternoon services of the Ten Days, except on the Sabbath, Friday afternoons, and the 9th of Tishrei, the eve of the Day of Atonement, which is a sort of semi-holy day, and on which the penitential psalm with all its incidents is also omitted.[2]
  4. In the early morning of work-days, before the regular morning service, Selichot are read in a form or order very much like that observed on the night of Day of Atonement. The poetical pieces, at least in the Ashkenazi ritual, differ for each of the days, those for the 9th of Tishri being the fewest and shortest. Separate prayer-books containing these selihot along with those for certain days preceding New-Year and for the morning, the additional, and the afternoon services of the Day of Atonement known as Mahzorim are published, and are indispensable to those attending the early morning services.[2]

Services in synagogue Main articles: Jewish services § Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur, Kol Nidre, and Ne'ila

The services for the Days of Awe — Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur — take on a solemn tone as befits these days. Traditional solemn tunes are used in the prayers. The musaf service on Rosh Hashana has nine blessings; the three middle blessings include biblical verses attesting to sovereignty, remembrance and the shofar, which is sounded 100 times during the service.

Additional customs

During these days some are stricter and eat only baked goods produced with a Jew involved in the baking process known as Pat Yisrael even though during the year they eat any kosher baked goods known as pat paltar. If while traveling it is not possible to obtain Pat Yisrael, then being stricter is not a requirement.[3]

There are conflicting customs whether weddings should be held during the weekdays of the Ten Days: some Orthodox Jews avoid holding weddings during this more serious period, while other Orthodox Jews as well as non-Orthodox Jews may do so.

Origins of the Ten Days of Repentance

Maimonides' (1135–1204) Laws of Repentance in his Mishneh Torah is one of the most authoritative sources for the name and function of these days, but he draws on earlier sources:

"The term ... is not found in the Talmud Bavli, although the days referred to are mentioned there. The expression used in the Bavli is "the ten days between Rosh HaShanah and Yom HaKippurim." In the literature of the Geonim, we also find "the ten days from the beginning of Tishrei to Yom HaKippurim," "the first ten days of the month of Tishrei," "(the time) between Rosh HaShanah and Yom HaKippurim." But the term commonly used now, "Aseret Yemai Teshuvah," is also found in early sources. It is used in the Talmud Yerushalmi, by Pesikta Rabbati, a Midrash, and it is also found in the literature of the Geonim. But ever since the days of the Rishonim, literally the "first" or the "early" ones, referring to post-Talmudic and Geonic times; actually Torah scholars from approximately the eleventh century through the fifteenth, "Aseret Yemai Teshuvah" is the most popular title for this period of time in the Hebrew Calendar. The special character of these days ... in emphasis on "Teshuvah," Repentance, "Tefilla," Prayer and "Zehirut," Spiritual Vigilance."[4] Reasons of Maimonides

The most serious and comprehensive reasons behind the Ten Days of Repentance are derived from the works of Maimonides (known in Hebrew as the RAMBAM):

RAMBAM in "Hilchot Teshuvah," "The Laws of Repentance" (2:6), "Despite the fact that "Teshuvah" and crying out to HaShem are always timely, during the Ten Days between Rosh HaShanah and Yom HaKippurim it is exceedingly appropriate, and is accepted immediately, as it says, 'Seek HaShem when He is to be found' (Yeshayahu 55:6) (Isaiah 55:6)." The source of this statement of the RAMBAM is Masechet Rosh HaShanah (18a) where it is written, "Seek HaShem when He is to be found - these are the days between Rosh HaShanah and Yom HaKippurim." The RAMBAM continues in "Hilchot Teshuvah" (3:4) "…Every person should view himself all year as if he were half innocent and half guilty. And that is the way he should look at the world as well, as if it were half innocent and half guilty... as it says "The Righteous Person is the Foundation of the World" - because his being righteous tipped the world for good, and saved it." "And because of this, the whole House of Israel have accustomed themselves to give more "Tzedakah" (Charity), and to do more good deeds, and to engage in "Mitzvot," from Rosh HaShanah through Yom HaKippurim more than the rest of the year. And they have all adopted the custom of rising at night during this ten-day period and praying in the synagogues prayers of supplication and entreaties until daylight."[4] References



"The "Aseret Yemai Teshuvah," Ten Days of Repentance: In "Halachah," Jewish Law and "Machashavah," Jewish Thought". Orthodox Union. Retrieved September 22, 2009.,



 The main Avoda/Theme of the Judgment Day is focusing on "Hashem Melech", The King. Hashem created the Universe (which was created on Rosh Hashana) & He runs it all. He is the only One that has any power & only He can do anything for us.   On Rosh Hashana we work on gaining clarity on our EMUNAH. The more Emunah you gain, the more you are ready for the Yom Hadeen, because Emunah includes everything.   Rambam: "I am Hashem your G-d"(10 Commandments") this is the Mitzvah to gain Awareness & Belief in Hashem. This is most fundamental & supercedes even admitting our sins which we don't do on Rosh Hashana.    We have to first think about and do Teshuba for the sin of forgetting that Hakadosh Baruch Hu is in charge of everything, since the lacking of it is the root of our doing sins.   When you go out into the world and you have to make a living and feel you are all alone, know that Hashem remembers people. He remembers Noach (Mussaf Amidah); and so too He remembers the descendants of Noach. This is part of Rosh Hashana, realizing and remembering that He is "Hazan et haolam kulo"/He is sustaining the whole world. That is, your livelihood that you have every day.   The great Purpose in life is to constantly improve, that is something that Hashem is urging us and weighing.   "Hashem imparts wisdom to the wise person" (not the jester) because He sees that this wise person will make the best use of this gift. So, we want to improve ourselves to be in this position for the Great Day of Judgment, Yom Hadeen.   "Asher Bara Elokim Laasot", ". "That Hashem created to do". The words 'to do' seem superfluous since it was already stated that "Hashem rested from all of the work  that He did". R' Miller explains that the words "to do" come to teach us the great purpose of life is to be a doer, to make something out of ourselves through constant improvement/Teshuba.   Hashem, our Father, Avinu Malkenu, is waiting on Rosh Hashana to hear our commitment to improve. "Bring a Minha offering and come before Hashem" (Hodu) We should come today with some commitment.   We can say, "Hashem, we are going to utilize the coming year to love & fear You. To do everything to serve Hashem. I am going to make something out of myself". When Hashem hears our commitment for the New Year, He says: "My child, I see that you are committing to improvement, I commit to giving you another year of life and blessing"

Vienna Art Museums

Wise sayings about Tuition and College

It makes no difference how low tuition is if the student has no source of funds to pay that tuition. James E. Rogers Entrepreneur 

The best math lesson we can teach college students this year is to subtract a tuition increase and benefit from the dividends of higher education. Jodi Rell 87th Governor of the U.S. state of Connecticut

Going to college offered me the chance to play football for four more years. Ronald Reagan President 

A thorough knowledge of the Bible is worth more than a college education. Theodore Roosevelt President

I believe that we parents must encourage our children to become educated, so they can get into a good college that we cannot afford. Dave Barry

If you want to get laid, go to college. If you want an education, go to the library. Frank Zappa Musician

When bright young minds can't afford college, America pays the price. Arthur Ashe Tennis Player

The only other time I've been away from home was when I went to college. And that was just an hour away, so I could always go home if I needed to. Carrie Underwood Actress

When we make college more affordable, we make the American dream more achievable. William J. Clinton President

A college education shows a man how little other people know. Thomas Chandler Haliburton Politician, judge, and author

I think a college education is important no matter what you do in life. Phil Mickelson Golfer

One half who graduate from college never read another book. G. M. Trevelyan Historian

I never went to college when I was young and am looking forward to giving it a try... at age 65! Martin Sheen Actor

In the world today, a young lady who does not have a college education just is not educated. Walter Annenberg Publisher

It is virtually impossible to compete in today's global economy without a college degree.
No one should be denied the opportunity to get an education and increase their earning potential based solely on their inability to pay for a college education. Bobby Scott Congressman

College inspired me to think differently. It's like no other time in your life. Larisa Oleynik Actress

No, I never went to college. Always regretted it, always envied people who did. Sydney Pollack Filmmaker

See you tomorrow--continue the 10 days of Repentence

Love Yehuda Lave

Rabbi Yehuda Lave

2850 Womble Road, Suite 100-619, San Diego
United States


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