Breaking news--Israel's now have to quarantine when they go to NY State and Harper Lee, To Kill A Mockingbird, And The Jews By Saul Jay Singer -and The Exodus, While Under Attack By Britain’s Navy, Became Israel’s First Ship Of State By Jeff Dunetz and What Does ‘Eye for an Eye’ Really Mean? By Yehuda Shurpin and Yad Kennedy on a Mountaintop in Jerusalem with a private forest
It is very difficult to give up the substances that bring us pleasure. The only way we can do this is to substitute a spiritual pleasure. We must train ourselves to feel true, heart-felt pleasure when we have a victory, to imagine that the angels are dancing and clapping with joy and that Hashem is experiencing joy along with us! So the next time you decide to avoid a harmful substance, don't suffer with feelings of deprivation! Imagine that firecrackers are going off in Shomayim! Smile inwardly as if a camera is taking a victory picture!
Yehuda Lave is an author, journalist, psychologist, rabbi, spiritual teacher, and coach, with degrees in business, psychology and Jewish Law. He works with people from all walks of life and helps them in their search for greater happiness, meaning, business advice on saving money, and spiritual engagement.
Love Yehuda Lave
Israelis on Long List of Foreigners Quarantined Upon Entry in NY State
Photo Credit: News Oresund via Flickr
NY Gov. Andrew Cuomo on Monday announced a long list of Level 2 and 3 countries whose citizens will be compelled to quarantine and fill out a travel form when they arrive in New York. Failing to obey the rules could result in a $2,000 fine.
Governor Cuomo said that "the CDC's decision to end enhanced screening at airports, coupled with alarming case increases in countries around the world, presents an increased threat to New York's progress in the war against COVID-19."
"Today's Executive Order will require the Department of Health to alert all travelers from any Level 2 or Level 3 country of mandatory quarantine requirements, as well as require international travelers to complete the DOH Traveler Health Form to aid in the state's robust contact tracing efforts and further prevent the spread of COVID-19," he added.
The governor issued a list of only 31 countries that are not subject to the mandatory quarantine requirement. Hint – you probably don't live there: American Samoa, Anguilla, Bonaire, Brunei, Cambodia, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Falkland Islands, Fiji, Guernsey, Greenland, Grenada, Isle of Man, Laos, Macau SAR, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Micronesia, Montserrat, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Palau, Saba, Saint Barthelemy, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Sint Eustatius, Taiwan, Thailand, and Timor-Leste.
Gov. Cuomo tweeted on Monday that of the 52,936 tests reported Sunday, 834 were positive (1.5% of total). Total hospitalizations were at 543. Also, sadly, there were 11 Corona fatalities.
The governor also tweeted on Monday: "We are seeing elevated positive test rates in Brooklyn, Orange County, and Rockland County. Every New Yorker must: Wear a mask. Get tested. Social distance. Wash your hands often. Avoid large gatherings. Take this seriously, especially if you live in these areas."
Arizona, Minnesota, Nevada, Rhode Island, and Wyoming have been added on Tuesday to the Tri-State Travel Advisory requiring American travelers to self-quarantine for 14 days after entering NY State.
There are 33 states and two territories on the Tri-State quarantine list (and you probably live in one of them): Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Guam, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Puerto Rico, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.
The Three Musketeers at the Kotel
Yad Kennedy Memorial Lookout
Hebrew name: Yad Kennedy
Location: Jerusalem Mountains
Description: An impressive monument atop Mount Aminadav, in memory of John Kennedy, the 35th president of the United States, who was assassinated on November 22nd, 1963. The monument, created by David Resnick and Dov Feigin is shaped like a stump of a felled tree, with 51 columns, representing the states of the U.S. To enjoy the scenery, walk around the monument for a circular view of the Jerusalem and Hebron mountains. In the distance, you can see the city of Ashdod.
The phrase "an eye for an eye" is found in a number of places in the Bible.1 Does this mean that we actually poke out the eye of an eye-poker? Contrary to what some would like to claim, this phrase was never understood or applied in the literal sense. Rather, according to the Oral Torah, this is a directive for monetary compensation to the injured party, as evidenced by the Targum's translation of the phrase.2
The Talmud3 and biblical commentators4 demonstrate that these verses aren't meant to be read literally. For example, what if the perpetrator is himself blind—how are we meant to fulfill the injunction "an eye for an eye"? What if one of the parties had only one functioning eye before the incident? Or the victim's eye was only damaged to a third of his previous vision, but he can still somewhat see?
We can also deduce the meaning of the verses from the context. As Maimonides puts it:
How do we know that the intent of the Torah's statement with regard to the loss of a limb, "an eye for an eye," is financial restitution? That same verse continues "a blow for a blow." And with regard to the penalty for giving a colleague a blow, it is explicitly stated: "When a man strikes his colleague with a stone or a fist . . . he should pay for his being idled and for his medical expenses."5 Thus, we learn that the word tachat (תחת) mentioned with regard to a blow indicates the necessity for financial restitution, and so one can conclude that the meaning of the same word with regard to an eye or another limb is also financial restitution.6
Furthermore, regarding an instance when one kills another, the Torah makes a point of telling us that one cannot give restitution for a life that was taken, implying that in other cases we do give monetary compensation.7
But even without these logical deductions, the meaning of this phrase is known to us through tradition. As Maimonides concludes:
Although these interpretations are obvious from the study of the Written Law, and they are explicitly mentioned in the Oral Tradition transmitted by Moses from Mount Sinai, they are all regarded as halachot from Moses (i.e. oral tradition going back to Sinai). This is what our ancestors saw in the court of Joshua and in the court of Samuel of Ramah, and in every single Jewish court that has functioned from the days of Moses our teacher until the present age.8
In short, this is a figure of speech and is clearly not meant to be taken literally, just as in the English language, if you tell someone to take a bath, it doesn't mean you want the person to rip out the plumbing and carry the tub somewhere. Nor when you say "We gave the other team a beating!" does it mean that you will find the other team bruised and bloody in the emergency ward. So too, "an eye for an eye" is not talking about eyeballs; it is merely an idiom that refers to equitable monetary compensation.
Punishments of the Torah
"An eye for an eye" may be an idiom, but the Torah always uses precise language, so why use this particular phrase? There is a purposeful subtext here: The perpetrator deserves to be injured or lose a limb in the same manner as the victim, but G‑d is compassionate, so the perpetrator makes financial restitution to the victim instead. It's therefore important to bear in mind that, as is the case with all interpersonal transgressions, merely giving financial compensation should not be seen as having made amends for what was done, which can never fully be corrected; The best we can do is offer monetary compensation and beg forgiveness from the victim.
See Targum Jonathan and Jerusalem Targum ad loc. Targum Onkelus translates the word tachat as "in exchange," which many be seen as further proof that the Torah is talking about giving something "in exchange" for what was done (e.g., money) as opposed to "doing" something to the perpetrator, which doesn't actually give anything to the victim.
On 17th July 1947, a rickety old steamer named The President Warfield was renamed Exodus 1947. In an open sea ceremony, as the steamship was being attacked by the British navy, the Zionist blue-white flag with the Star of David was hoisted and "Hatikvah, (the Hope)" which eventually became the Israeli national anthem, was sung over and over. The Exodus 1947 became Israel's first ship of state.
Forget what you saw in the movie "Exodus" Paul Newman wasn't there and the British were much more brutal than portrayed in the movie, they clubbed the Jewish refugees when trying to take them back to Germany.
The USS President Warfield Leaves Baltimore On It's Way To Becoming The Exodus 1947
With the White Paper of 1939, the British caved into Arab pressure (as they have done before and as they still do today). The Paper severely limited the number of Jews that could enter what was then called Palestine. The White Paper meant that Great Britain was sentencing thousands of Jews who could have escaped the Holocaust to death. The US refused to take them onto American soil FDR believed there werealready too many Jews in the U.S. and Churchill refused to take them on English soil or the Jews own homeland. So the Jews began to find ways to sneak Jews into the holy land. The most famous of those missions was The Exodus 1947.
Ironically The President Warfield was named after Solomon Davies Warfield president of the Baltimore Steam Packet Company a steamship line that owned the ship. Warfield was the uncle of Wallis Warfield Simpson the woman for whom King Edward VIII of the United Kingdom, abdicated his throne in 1937. The British would get their revenge when The President Warfield became the Exodus 1947.
Decommissioned in 1946, the ship The President Warfield was bought for $8,000 as scrap by the Western Trading Company (a front for the Haganah, which later became the Israel Defense Forces). Jewish-American Sam (the Banana Man) Zemurray was instrumental in obtaining the ship for the Haganah, which would explain its Honduran registration. It was said that Mr. Zemurray's United Fruit Company, pretty much owned Honduras. The President Warfield was refitted in Baltimore and sailed for France on 25th February 1947 where it picked up over 4,500 Jewish refugees from Nazi Germany.
During the journey, the people on the Exodus 1947 prepared to be intercepted. The ship was divided into sections staffed by different groups and each went through practice resistance sessions. The training came in handy as the night after the renaming ceremony, two British destroyers rammed the "Exodus 1947″ from both sides, damaging the hull, railings, and lifeboats. It was boarded by sailors and Royal Marines and a desperate struggle developed. The Jewish refugees fought back, using tin cans, screwdrivers, potatoes, bottles, wooden boards and metal bars as weapons.
As described by a refugee Noah Klieger, "we were determined not to surrender the ship to the British without a fight. It was an unequal battle, and eventually, the Royal Navy boarding party, using truncheons and light firearms, succeeded in bringing the Exodus" under its control. The clash had lasted several hours and resulted in three deaths –- Second Officer William (Bill) Bernstein, an American Aliyah Bet volunteer crew member was found clubbed to death, a 15-year-old refugee Zvi Jakubowitz, and one other died of bullet wounds. Some 150 were injured, including other American volunteer crew members."
After the fierce and unexpected battle, a taut voice was heard broadcasting in a fine American accent to all of Palestine on Kol Yisrael (the Voice of Israel), the Haganah secret radio:
"This is the refugee ship, Exodus 1947. Before dawn today we were attacked by five British destroyers and one cruiser at a distance of 17miles from the shores of Palestine, in international waters. The assailants immediately opened fire, threw gas bombs, and rammed our ship from three directions. On our deck there are one dead, five dying, and 120 wounded. The resistance continued for more than 3hours. Owing to the severe losses and the condition of the ship, which is in danger of sinking, we were compelled to sail in the direction of Haifa in order to save the 4500 refugees on board from drowning."
After reaching Haifa, British soldiers transferred the Exodus 1947 passengers, exhausted from the sea journey and the battle to three freighters converted into caged prison ships. It was named "Operation Oasis."
Exodus 1947 Arrives In Haifa
The three caged prison ships departed Haifa with the Exodus passengers. The refugees assumed that as illegal emigrants they would be interned in camps on the island of Cyprus. But the three prison ships were sailing towards the European mainland, back towards France. The conditions on board these ships were harsh. The refugees lay crammed together in the bare holds of the freighters. The British Government didn't care that they were mistreating people who had just survived Hitler, many of whom survived concentration camps, after all, they were only Jews
The ships first landed at Toulon, France, where the passengers were ordered to disembark but they refused. When the French authorities refused to use force to remove the refugees from the ship, British authorities, fearing adverse public opinion, decided to wait until the passengers disembarked of their own accord. The British Foreign Secretary tried to scare them off the ship by threatening to send them back to Germany. But the passengers didn't budge. They forced the issue by declaring a hunger strike, so the British sent them to Hamburg, Germany where the British authorities compelled the passengers to disembark, and some were forcibly removed from the ship by clubbing them. The British then took the 4,500+ passengers many of whom were refugees from concentration camps and transferred to displaced person camps in Germany.
Displaced persons in camps all over Europe protested vociferously and staged hunger strikes when they heard the news. Large protests erupted on both sides of the Atlantic. The ensuing public embarrassment for Britain played a significant role in the diplomatic swing of sympathy toward the Jews and the eventual recognition of a Jewish state in 1948.
The ship's ordeals were widely covered by international media and caused the British government much public embarrassment. The former passengers were permitted to immigrate to Palestine in small groups, and most were present in Israel on May 15, 1948, when the nation their plight helped to create, declared its independence.
Sticker Printed to Protest British Mistreatment Of Exodus Passengers
A confidential report kept in the files of the child-tracking service and dated 31 October 1947 made it clear that the phenomenon of anti-Semitism also existed among the echelons of the British Mandate powers. Using sharp words, the report gives a disparaging assessment of the Jewish committee established in Pöppendorf stating that the reason for the children's being destined for Palestine was incomprehensible considering that not even one of the children had "Palestinian" parents.
It is said that despite the fact that the Exodus 1947 didn't deliver a single Jew to the Holy Land the events of the Exodus voyage convinced the US government that the British mandate of Palestine was incapable of handling the Jewish refugee problem and that a United Nations-brokered solution needs to be found. The US government then intensified its pressures on the British government to return its mandate to the UN, and the British in turn were more than willing to accept this.
Jews In Displaced Persons Camp Near Hamburg Fixing Wire Fence Under Watchful Eyes of Geman Guards.
Seventy-one years ago, the British appeased the Arabs, denied Jews entry into the Holy Land and sent them back to the Germany from which they had just escaped to be guarded by Germans. Today Great Britain and their European allies are still appeasing radical Islamists, their terrorism, their call for the destruction of Jewish State, and the anti-Semitic hatred they teach their children. In 1947 the British physically attacked the Jews, today the attack the Jews and Jewish history because they cowardly abstain in U.N. votes.
The battle to save Israel and the Jews no longer takes place on a rickety old ship. The Jewish State now has a modern army for protection, make no mistake about it…the Jewish people are just as precarious position today as they were 1939 or in 1947, Anti-Semitism prevails in the Arab nations, Europe, and is even now back in favor in some part of America, led by the Democratic Party and former President Barack Obama.
Nelle Harper Lee (1926-2016) was an American novelist best known for her 1960 novel, To Kill A Mockingbird, which has sold more than 30 million copies and became one of the undisputed greatest classics of modern American literature. Lee, who won the Pulitzer Prize for To Kill Mockingbird (1961), was also awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom for her contribution to literature (2007).
To Kill a Mockingbird's stratospheric popularity was heightened when the novel was turned into a major motion picture that won three Academy Awards in 1962, including a Best Actor Award for Gregory Peck for his portrayal of lawyer Atticus Finch. Finch, Lee's protagonist, was portrayed in both the novel and the film as a paragon of virtue and the moral conscience of the South.
To Kill a Mockingbird – which deals with the irrationality of attitudes towards race and class in the Deep South of the 1930s – was inspired by racism in Lee's hometown of Monroeville, Alabama. The novel, narrated by Scout, Finch's six-year-old daughter, is set in the small fictional town of Maycomb, Alabama during the 1930s, when segregation and discrimination against blacks were deeply ingrained in the political, economic, and social fabric of the American South.
Finch, who has agreed to represent defendant Tom Robinson, an innocent black man falsely accused of raping a white girl, mounts a passionate defense of his client, but the all-white jury returns the pre-ordained and expected guilty verdict. He is hopeful that he can get Robinson's conviction overturned on appeal but, tragically, the incarcerated Robinson is shot to death after trying to escape.
Though Finch has been lionized as a moral hero by generations of readers and as a model of integrity for lawyers, a reassessment of his character became necessary when Lee's controversial Mockingbird sequel (which she actually wrote before Mockingbird) Go Set A Watchman – the title is based upon Isaiah 21:6 – was published in 2015. Some say it was published against the author's wishes, but that complex subject is beyond the scope of this article, in which I will stick to Lee's portrayal of Finch in To Kill a Mockingbird.
Lee, who studied law for several years, almost certainly based Finch upon her father, A.C. Lee, a lawyer and Alabama legislator who in 1919 defended two black men accused of murdering a white storekeeper (both defendants were convicted and hanged); proud of his daughter the author, he later delighted in signing autographs as "Atticus Finch."
There is significant Jewish subtext in To Kill a Mockingbird, which won the Brotherhood Award of the National Conference of Christians and Jews (1961).
First, Lee characterizes Jews as being accepted members of Southern society. For example, she describes the family of Sam Levy, a Jewish dry goods dealer, as "meeting all the criteria for being Fine Folks: they did the best they could with the sense they had, and they had been living on the same plot of ground in Maycomb for five generations."
In one scene, Sam Levy is confronted by the Ku Klux Klan but, most unrealistically, he easily chases them away. Later recounting the story to Scout, Finch says that the KKK "paraded by Mr. Sam Levy's house one night, but Sam just stood on his porch and told 'em things had come to a pretty pass, he'd sold 'em the very sheets on their backs. Sam made 'em so ashamed of themselves they went away."
This passage seems particularly odd in a novel lauded for its historical accuracy. Many critics argue – persuasively, in my opinion – that Lee's description of Jews in Southern society manifests deep naiveté because, in fact, Jews were considered "others," not equals, in white society. It is true that Jews were generally more accepted than blacks in the Southern hierarchy, but they were still subject to anti-Semitism and had good reason to fear the Klan.
Second, in a poignant scene at the end of the novel, a group of students in Scout's third-grade class are discussing current events when Cecil Jacobs comments: "Old Adolf Hitler has been after the Jews and he's puttin' 'em in prisons and he's taking away all their property and he won't let any of 'em out of the country…. He wants to register 'em in case they might wanta cause him any trouble and I think this is a bad thing and that's my current event." Another student asks: "How can Hitler just put a lot of folks in a pen like that, looks like the govamint'd stop him."
The teacher, Miss Gates, answers:
Hitler is the government. That's the difference between America and Germany. We are a democracy and Germany are a dictatorship. Over here we don't believe in persecuting anybody. Persecution comes from people who are prejudiced. Pre-ju-dice [pronouncing precisely]. There are no better people in the world than the Jews, and why Hitler doesn't think so is a mystery to me…. They contribute to every society they live in and, most of all, they are a deeply religious people…. You'll learn that the Jews have been persecuted since the beginning of history, even driven out of their own country. It's one of the most terrible stories in history.…
Lee's discussion of the Holocaust in To Kill a Mockingbird is truly remarkable, coming as it did in an era when few Jewish leaders and writers were discussing it and when even Holocaust survivors were reticent about discussing their experiences, even with their own children. Equally extraordinary was the fact that Lee, a Southern Methodist from rustic Alabama, undertook to address the moral problems presented by the Shoah.
Yet, ironically, in one of the many ethical conundrums in the novel, Lee has Finch respond to his daughter's question about whether it is acceptable to hate Hitler by saying, "It is not…. It's not okay to hate anybody." Some ethicists challenge Finch's thinking: Does he really mean that it is unacceptable to hate the mass murderer of millions?
Some critics argue that Finch (really, Lee) is not naïve but, rather, is blinded by a strong desire not to acknowledge or address contemporary Southern anti-Semitism; it is far simpler to buy into the fantasy of Sam Levy, the little Jew down the street who single-handedly shames the KKK away.
Many critics maintain this entire scene is anachronistic in that Lee incongruously imposed her own after-the-fact 1960s sensibilities onto her 1935 characters, who were overwhelmingly unaware of the Nazi persecution against the Jews. Moreover, according to Holocaust historians, at the time in which To Kill a Mockingbird is set, even those who kept abreast of developing events overseas did not see anti-Semitism as central to Nazism and, even when news of anti-Jewish persecution began to trickle out, most Americans blamed the Jews themselves.
However, while the American disinterest in the developing anti-Jewish persecution – and the general public enmity toward the Jews of Europe – are inarguable historical fact, other commentators note that some Southern newspapers in the late 1930s refused to rely exclusively upon national press reports and blithely cite Associated Press accounts without comment. Rather, Southern journalists and editors – particularly in Alabama – manifested deeply negative views of the Nazis, condemned German anti-Semitism, and exhibited far greater sympathy for the Jews than the mainstream national press. In this regard, it's interesting to note that Lee has Atticus, who refers to Hitler as "a maniac," reading The Birmingham News, The Montgomery Advertiser, and The Mobile Press.
Moreover, as early as 1933, Alabama Governor Benjamin Miller condemned the Nazi persecution of Jews, and the Mobile City Commission passed a unanimous resolution lamenting Nazi Germany's bigotry. As such, these commentators contend that Lee's seminal classroom scene, far from anachronistic, accurately reflects the sensibilities of many Southerners at the time.
In any event, it's obvious that Lee has great affection for the Jews, and the intended lesson underlying To Kill a Mockingbird's passages on Jews is obvious: Just as Hitler persecutes the Jews out of pure unreasoned prejudice, American social order, which discriminates against blacks, is based on prejudice, and such racism – against blacks, Jews, or anyone else – must not be tolerated.
There are any number of reasons proposed by critics to account for Lee's philo-Semitism, including her connections with New York Jews, particularly in the publishing industry. In my opinion, however, the most likely explanation is that her essential zeitgeist – her contempt for bigotry – is the very gestalt of her philosophy, the very sense of right and wrong that establishes the foundation of To Kill a Mockingbird and permeates its every scene.
Lee's philo-Semitism is borne out in this rare and historic April 17, 2009 letter she wrote to her dear friend and New York neighbor, Bruce Higgison:
First page of a rare three-page 2009 letter from Lee to her friend Bruce Higgison.
My own Bruce: You and the lord move in mysterious ways!!… The new abp [archbishop] looks jolly enough but guess he will follow the Pope's orders. Maybe I'm prejudiced, but I don't think much of German shepherds (you are too young – hell, you weren't even born!) I shall never forget how quickly the Germans forgave themselves after the war. In the history of the present generation, Hitler never happened. At any rate, there may be enough Irish abps [archbishops] to head off [Pope] Benedict! I ramble. You are bored. I love you, Nelle
As is evident from our correspondence, Lee (whose full name was Nelle Lee Harper) had a deep friendship with Higgison that spanned many decades, and she frequently corresponded with him during her long visits back to her hometown in Alabama. Higgison, like Lee originally from Mobile, settled in the Yorkville section of Manhattan, looked after her apartment when she was away, and faithfully and consistently updated her on the New York gossip scene.
At the time this letter was written, however, it is likely that Lee had moved permanently, perhaps writing from her nursing home in Alabama; in her last years, she had become wheelchair-bound, partially blind and deaf, and suffering from memory loss. (Pundits argue that her poor health supports their argument that she lacked capacity to consent to the publication of Go Set a Watchman a year before her death.)
Over and above Lee's unmistakable anger at the German whitewash of their Nazi past, there is additional evidence in this letter of her philo-Semitism. She was apparently not an admirer of Pope Benedict XVI, born Joseph Ratzinger in Bavaria, who was a member of the Hitler Youth during World War II; served in the Nazi anti-aircraft corps; helped set up the Reich's anti-tank defenses in Hungary; attended "de-Nazification" classes while held in a POW camp after the war; and later served as the Archbishop of Munich. Hence, her pun referring to him mockingly as a "German shepherd."
Many critics justifiably accuse Benedict of great insensitivity towards Judaism. First, in a tone-deaf action deeply offensive to Jews, he infamously restored the traditional Good Friday Tridentine Mass service, which included a prayer beseeching G-d to lift the veil over Jewish eyes so they may see the "truth." Second, in the face of fierce Jewish opposition, Benedict accelerated the canonization process of Pope Pius XII, who had remained passive and silent about Nazi genocide during the Holocaust.
Third, Benedict lifted the excommunications of four bishops of the Society of Saint Pius X, which endorsed the doctrine of Jewish deicide (i.e., "the Jews killed our god") and spread canards regarding Jewish plots of world domination. Fourth, Benedict lifted the excommunication of Bishop Richard Williamson, an outspoken Holocaust denier who preached that not a single Jew was gassed by the Nazis, which many critics, both Jewish and non-Jewish, viewed as evidence of the pontiff condoning Williamson's historical revisionism.
During his visit to Israel in 2009, Benedict delivered a banal speech at Yad Vashem in which he expressed "deep compassion for the millions of Jews killed" but never once uttered the words "German" or "Nazi," made no suggestion of Catholic responsibility for the Holocaust, and refused to enter the museum.
The archbishop to whom Lee refers in this letter is almost certainly Timothy Dolan, who was appointed by Benedict as Archbishop of New York and was installed on April 15, 2009, only a few days before the letter was written. Generally viewed favorably by Jews, Dolan was presented with the American Jewish Committee's Isaiah Award for Exemplary Interreligious Leadership "in recognition of his steadfast contribution and ongoing commitment to the relationship between our respective faiths" on November 2, 2015.
See you tomorrow bli neder
We need Moshiach now
Love Yehuda Lave
Yehuda Lave, Spirtiual Advisor and Counselor
Jerusalem, Jerusalem Israel
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